Peer Review and Online Articles

The following is a selection of articles from peer review journals and other online sources to provide an overview of research into digital citizenship and 1-to-1 environments.

Brazee, E. (2012). Everyone says that being a good digital citizen is important we believe it? Five lessons learned on digital citizenship. National organization of secondary principles. Retrieved on July 2, 2013 from

This article was written by a school principal, who reported his findings after researching and spending a year in workshops, discussing digital citizenship with students. His overview includes some common misconceptions and concludes with his lessons learned. The author states there really is no "digital" citizenship, but just citizenship, as kids's lives are interconnected so closely. However, he does go on to address that some students still say one thing in person, and do another online. The author also stresses the importace of kids having positive digital role models. Parents and teachers need to demonstrate respectful use of technology in social spaces, as well as monitoring their own use, and making conscious decision about unplugging. (Especially important in a 1:1 environment).

Crichton, S., Pegler, K., & White, D. (2012). Personal devices in public settings: Lessons learned from an iPod Touch/iPad project. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 10(1), 23-31. Retrieved from

This article outlines a research project that involved students utilizing hand held digital technologies in the classroom, challenges that were faced during the study, and areas for further research. The authors have highlighted that the introduction of devices in the classroom introduced a new exploration of what digital citizenship means in the context of a classroom, and what responsibilities various stakeholders (students, teachers, parents, administrators) have in such programs. As the development of digital technologies have occurred so quickly, policy to support its use has evolved at a slower pace. Important points raised regarding digital citizenship include the importance of developing acceptable use policies that students understand, providing professional development for teachers around the nine components of digital citizenship, and the need for a digital citizenship curriculum as an important infrastructure for the implementation of 1 to 1 environments.

Gozalvez, V. (2011). "Education for Democratic Citizenship in a Digital Culture." Comunicar 18.36: 131-8. ProQuest. Web. 2 July 2013.

This article outlines the importance of teaching students how to utilize digital technologies to be active 21st century citizens. The author advocates that it is important to develop student's awareness of how to utilize technology for civic and responsible use, to help sustain the values of a democratic society. As the internet contains a wide variety of information and various view points, students need to learn how to filter information appropriately, and also be aware of examining the resources they select to make sure they are not only finding information to support their own opinion, referred to as technology amplified bias. It is suggested that through the use of educational guidelines, students can be taught digital citizenship skills to navigate the ever changing online world.

Hollandsworth, R., Dowdy, L., & Donovan, J. (2011). Digital citizenship in K-12: It takes a village. TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 55(4), 37-47. Retrieved from

This article stresses the importance of using multi-facets when teaching digital citizenship to students. Often times librarians and media specialists are in charge of tackling this concept. When this occurs, students may view the idea of digital citizenship only in that particular setting. The teaching needs to be shared with parents and teachers of all subject areas. Students need to be taught how to "interpret and comprehend content found online, and how to assess, create, and research with appropriate tools." If adults do not take on the task of informing students, they will create their own norms, which may lead to dangerous or negative outcomes. Schools need to create a culture of metacognition and reflection, asking- "What does it mean to be a good citizen both offline and online. All stakeholders in a child's life need to participate in this education of digital citizenship.

Monke, L. (2005). The overdominance of computers. Educational Leadership, 63(4). Retrieved from

The author of this article believes that children in the 21st century live in a technology dominated world, and they need more balance in there experiences through face to face interactions. He argues that technology has great power and can trigger serious consequences in students lives, so students need sufficient life experience before utilizing technology tools so they can use them wisely. He continues to support his argument with the belief that students need to develop general citizenship skills before they can apply these skills in a digital environment.

Ohler, J. (2012). Digital citizenship means character education for the digital age. The Education Digest, 77(8), 14-17. Retrieved from

Schools view students as having one of two lives. One, where students are permitted to use technology at home, and then disconnect once they arrive to school. Or two, where technology is valued both at home and in school (be it 1:1, bring your own device, or district issued devices). With the prefered version of option “two”, there are three ways schools can view technology problems. 1- Ignore arising issues, 2- Deal with consequences once inappropriate actions have occurred, or 3- Be proactive by purposefully instructing students on how to be good digital citizens. Administrators, teachers, and students should collaborate to create a program of norms that will be accepted and adopted by the school. Just as education for physical health is important, so is the digital health of students in the 21st century.

Oxley, C. (2011). Digital citizenship: Developing an ethical and responsible online culture. Access, 25(3), 5-9. Retrieved from

This article highlights the importance of considering the duty of care that schools and teachers hold in educating students about safety, including online. Younger students would not naturally consider if they are utilizing digital technologies responsibly and ethically without teachers making them aware of it, and valuing the importance of it. The author highlights the importance of students developing an internalized understanding of why they need to be appropriate digital citizens so that when they are not in a structured, supervised environment, they will still make appropriate choices. The author argues that todays youth are faced with three major problems that will have long lasting impact on their future as they will accumulate a permanent digital footprint that could have legal implications if they make unwise decisions.

Ribble, M. (2011). Digital citizenship in schools. Retrieved from

Defining a framework around 9 Elements of Digital Citizenship, is what is covered throughout this article. Not only are there descriptors of each element, but Ribble also provides examples of appropriate and inappropriate situations within each subheading. The elements outlined are: 1- Digital Access, 2- Digital Commerce, 3- Digital Communication, 4- Digital Literacy, 5- Digital Etiquette, 6- Digital Law, 7- Digital Rights and Responsibilities, 8- Digital Health and Awareness, 9- Digital Security.